Coulometric Titrator


Karl Fischer titration is simply a means to measure water content of samples. Modern instruments, such as the Aquamax KF, use the coulometric principle, whereby thCTe water present in the sample is coulometrically titrated to a predefined end point at which there is a minute excess of free iodine present. Stoichiometrically, 1 mole of water will react with 1 mole of iodine, so that 1 milligram of water is equivalent to 10.71 coulombs of electricity.

Combining the coulometric technique with Karl Fischer titration, Aquamax KF titrators determine the water content of the sample by measuring the amount of electrolysis current necessary to produce the required iodine. This is an absolute technique which does not require calibration of the reagents. Using the latest pulse current technology and our patented “ACE” control system, (Patent No.GB2370641), the Aquamax KF automatically selects the appropriate titration speed dependent upon the amount of water present in the sample. The titration speed is reduced as the end point is approached, and when the titration is completed the instrument prints out and displays the results.


Titration Method: Coulometric Karl Fischer titration

Electrolysis Control: Patented “ACE” control system GB2370641

Titration vessel: Low Drift Cell design, no grease or PTFE sleeves required

End Point detection: AC polarisation

End point indication: Visual display/print out/acoustic beep

Measuring range: Possible: 1µg – 200 mg water. Typical: 1µg – 10mg water

Moisture range: 1ppm – 100% water

Max. sensitivity: 0.1µg

Max. titration speed: 2.24 mg per minute

Max. current: 400 ma

Drift compensation: Automatically controlled

Precision: 10-100µg ± 3µg, 100µg-1mg ±3µg, above 1mg ±0.3%

Start delay time: 0-30 minutes, user selectable

End delay time: 0-30 minutes, user selectable

Calculation modes: Weight/weight, (W/w) (user programmable) Weight/dilution ratio, (W/K) Volume/density, (V/SG) Volume/volume, (V/v)

Display format: µg, mg/kg, ppm, %

Print format: µg, mg/kg, ppm, %

Statistics: max, mean, min values up to 99 runs

Method storage: 10 user programmable methods stored plus multi method via pc link

Sample ID number: User programmable

Stirrer speed: Microprocessor controlled

Languages: Multi languages – user selectable

Calendar/clock: Analysis time & date print out

Battery low indicator: Display & print out indication

Data outputs: USB and RS232 ports Removable Data storage: Flash drive (memory stick)

Removable Data storage: Flash drive (memory stick)

Data Entry: 15 key touchpad

Display: 40 character alphanumeric backlit LCD

Printer: 42 character high speed thermal printer

Power supply: 90-264V AC, 47-63 Hz. 12V DC car adapter/internal battery

Dimensions: 250 x 245 x 120 mm

Weight: 3.5 kg

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